Issue 1 (April 2019):

Regionalism Across the World in the Nineteenth Century

Old Age, Regionalism and the ‘North-South’ Divide in Late Victorian and Edwardian England.
Tom Heritage (University of Southampton)
Old age, Regionalism, ‘North-South’ Divide, Poverty, Employment, Family.
In late Victorian and Edwardian England, contemporaries argued that older people (or, those aged sixty years and over) in particular had greater employment opportunities, stronger familial ties and were less reliant on welfare in northern than in southern England. This paper discusses whether opportunities were indeed better for older people living in northern England. Using nineteenth-century census datasets for two English ‘southern’ and ‘northern’ counties, it will examine the labour force participation rates of older people, the rates on welfare and the extent of familial support. Overall, prospects were generally greater for older people living in the ‘northern’ counties. However, their fortunes varied within the counties based on particular districts. Also, women were more disadvantaged in terms of poverty and the labour market than men, irrespective of region. As will be shown, more research is needed into the history of older people through a regional perspective, especially for northern England.
Author Biography:

Tom Heritage is a PhD Candidate, working in the Department of Social Statistics and Demography at the University of Southampton. His research is supported by studentship funding from the Economic and Social Research Council.



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Romance, Revolution and Reform is an interdisciplinary PGR-led  journal on the 19th Century, run in association with the Southampton Centre for Nineteenth-Century Research.

The Journal is committed to helping new researchers publish their work in addition to acting as a forum for the discussion of new ideas in the field of Nineteenth-Century Studies.

ISSN 2517-7850


Editor in Chief: Katie Holdway

Deputy Editor: Emma Hills

University of Southampton, UK

SO17 1BJ


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